Zuckerhut - also known as Fleischkraut and Herbstchicorée (autumn chicory) - has a latin plant name of Cichorium intybus
and is a member of the chicory genus.
The name zuckerhut does in fact translate and mean sugar loaf, but this is in relation to the shape, and not the taste - as in Sugar Loaf Mountain, R.d.J., Br.
Cross-referencing different sources of reference and languages, it is difficult to get a definitive English equivalent, but it appears it can be an autumn or winter chicory/endive, or a romaine lettuce (cos) - as previously suggested.
It is slightly bitter when eaten raw, or can be quickly blanched.