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  #1521  
Old 09.06.2014, 12:16
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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As this is a "scientific" thread, I'd like to split a hair, or maybe add a contrivance. You could calculate depth with only one eye, provided you could perceive light phase and phase changes. You'd probably need a laser emitter attached to your forehead to provide the source of the phase. Images of sharks with mounted laser cannon spring to mind.
I have trouble assessing depth (which apparently contributes to vertigo, an unease with hights), due to strong prescription. Now, which is strange, I shoot really well and generally pull of a decent pool game, did golf, tennis, which should be challenging..My brain calculates depth by speed of ball, curve of the shot, etc..it adapts. I don't think it's conscious. Intuitive. I think our brain soaks up all little bits of info to compensate, to end up where we need to be.

Last edited by MusicChick; 09.06.2014 at 12:33.
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  #1522  
Old 09.06.2014, 12:22
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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I have trouble assessing depth (which apparently contributes to vertigo, an unease with hights), due to strong prescription. Now, which is strange, I shoot really well and generally pull of a decent pool game, did golf, tennis, which should be challenging..My brain calculates depth by speed of ball, curve of the shot, etc..it adapts. I don't it's conscious. Intuitive. I think our brain soaks up all little bits of info to compensate, to end up where we need to be.
Even with just one eye, the brain can do a lot to estimate depth. It just is never as good as 2 eyes.
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  #1523  
Old 09.06.2014, 12:32
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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More likely to absorb UV than reflect it. Plexiglass does just that I think.
I have super thin plastic lenses. Does it absorb the bad rays better than the super thin mineral I had before? I had the unauthorised really high index of the break (whatever the Eng. term is), they were really good quality as per vision and wear, but EU ruled them out for safety reasons, understandably. Airbags, etc.

If plastic lenses absorb more UV, why was I advised to add a layer of UV protection..was it to protect the lenses, or my eyes?

I don't like plastic lenses. They are light and all, but I prefer mineral ones. Plastic ones don't live well in a place with kids. Scratch.
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  #1524  
Old 09.06.2014, 12:34
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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I have trouble assessing depth (which apparently contributes to vertigo, an unease with hights), due to strong prescription. Now, which is strange, I shoot really well and generally pull of a decent pool game, did golf, tennis, which should be challenging..My brain calculates depth by speed of ball, curve of the shot, etc..it adapts. I don't it's conscious. Intuitive. I think our brain soaks up all little bits of info to compensate, to end up where we need to be.
Did you have "lazy/wandering eye", amblyopia, as a kid? I did, and although it was fixed pretty early on I've had some 3D difficulty since.

Apart from being crap at sports which involve very fast calculations of a ball moving towards me (mainly tennis and cricket fielding, which as a child I just assumed was because I was shit at sports - that still could be the reason) I could never see those weird 3D pictures ("Magic Eye" pictures) which are a squiggle of red and green lines.

And recently, with my new 3D TV and some glasses, I felt a bit queazy watching Men in Black 3 in 3D.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/69...-you-sick.html
http://www.democraticunderground.com/1142416
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-22245620
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  #1525  
Old 09.06.2014, 12:40
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Even with just one eye, the brain can do a lot to estimate depth. It just is never as good as 2 eyes.
Yeah, I know. If one has the eyes fixed, operated on, I wonder what it does in terms of adaptation. Will vertigo cease, etc. Depth in water doesn't do anything, I prefer it and watch free diving competitions, it's fascinating. But depth in the air, ugh. (I know seeing things through water fixes myopia a little, but not much for me, anyways..)

Last edited by MusicChick; 09.06.2014 at 13:04.
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  #1526  
Old 09.06.2014, 12:45
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Re: Ask a Scientist

It's the coating on glasses that absorbs the UV, not the amount they are tinted. You can get good UV protection from treated untinted glass.

It makes me cringe when I see people buy cheap knockoff sunglasses, especially for their kids. The chances of them actually having UV coating are virtually nil, and the dark tint opens up the pupil to let more UV into the eye.
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  #1527  
Old 09.06.2014, 12:48
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Did you have "lazy/wandering eye", amblyopia, as a kid? I did, and although it was fixed pretty early on I've had some 3D difficulty since.

Apart from being crap at sports which involve very fast calculations of a ball moving towards me (mainly tennis and cricket fielding, which as a child I just assumed was because I was shit at sports - that still could be the reason) I could never see those weird 3D pictures ("Magic Eye" pictures) which are a squiggle of red and green lines.

And recently, with my new 3D TV and some glasses, I felt a bit queazy watching Men in Black 3 in 3D.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/69...-you-sick.html
http://www.democraticunderground.com/1142416
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-22245620
I know there's certain age kids have to have defects in sensory perceptors corrected, in order not to have their brain/muscles overcompensate too much.

I can never see anything in 3D pictures. 3D Imax movies used to make me queezy, but the last 2 did not, weird because it was with a new pair of 3D glasses, maybe the technology got better or I stopped noticing the weirdness, not sure..better films?
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  #1528  
Old 08.07.2014, 16:00
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Re: Ask a Scientist

hello

I am a medical scientist by education and a general scientist through work in education.

I'm really excited to see if i can help with any questions

I'm pretty new here by the way

Thanks
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  #1529  
Old 08.07.2014, 20:20
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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hello

I am a medical scientist by education and a general scientist through work in education.

I'm really excited to see if i can help with any questions

I'm pretty new here by the way

Thanks
Fabulous! Welcome here, Jamima geek.

So, I'm waiting for a giant storm to pass, sipping my 3rd coffee thinking how to boost my blood pressure so I'm not so sleepy and can study. Storms are great but effect one's blood pressure, I'm wiped out from travels to do too many jumping jacks and coffee doesn't really work. What can one do? Wait it out? Low atmospheric pressure turns me too much into a hybernating creature.
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  #1530  
Old 14.10.2014, 09:32
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Re: Ask a Scientist

There's all these processes in the universe, like radioactive decay and supernovae that produce neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. These are famous for not interacting with anything very much. So what happens to them all?
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  #1531  
Old 14.10.2014, 10:12
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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There's all these processes in the universe, like radioactive decay and supernovae that produce neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. These are famous for not interacting with anything very much. So what happens to them all?
They just keep going? Actually I would say it's likely we just can't tell yet exactly what they will interact with. We just know they don't interact with baryonic matter much. They could be interacting with other even weirder particles that we can't detect.
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  #1532  
Old 14.10.2014, 12:17
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Re: Ask a Scientist

From here:
https://icecube.wisc.edu/info/neutrinos
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Where are they coming from?
From what we know today, a majority of the neutrinos floating around were born around 15 billions years ago, soon after the birth of the universe. Since this time, the universe has continuously expanded and cooled, and neutrinos have just kept on going. Theoretically, there are now so many neutrinos that they constitute a cosmic background radiation whose temperature is 1.9 degree Kelvin (-271.2 degree Celsius). Other neutrinos are constantly being produced from nuclear power stations, particle accelerators, nuclear bombs, general atmospheric phenomenae, and during the births, collisions, and deaths of stars, particularly the explosions of supernovae.
As said there, most of the neutrinos are primordial and just keep going and are all around us, which can also be said about the primordial photons. There is a very well measured photon background which you may already know about (called the Cosmic Microwave Background because the energy/frequency of those photons is in the microwave region of the photon energy spectrum).

There are a few more interesting things that can be said about neutrinos related to this.
1. even neutrinos interact frequently if they are very energetic, and if there are a lot of them. You may be interested in reading this:
https://what-if.xkcd.com/73/
The interactions the neutrinos have are weak because the particles responsible for the interaction, so-called Weak Bosons, are massive; whereas photons, that mediate electromagnetic interactions are massless. If neutrinos are so energetic that the mass of the Weak Bosons matters less, the interaction is more comparable in strength to the electromagnetic interaction (in fact they are two aspects of the same interaction, the electroweak interaction).

2. the ones that are around, from the properties that we know of them, can not explain the dark matter content of the universe (the leading possibility to explain dark matter is that it is a particle that interacts weakly, but it should be massive, whereas the neutrinos we know about are light). So in principle, in addition to the photon and neutrino backgrounds, there is also a Dark Matter particle background which plays a big role in terms of gravitational pull (contributing to how galaxies rotate and to how they were formed in the first place).

3. photons also don't interact that much in the interstellar medium (which is relatively empty)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstellar_medium
They interact more than neutrinos though, which has obvious advantages (nearly everything we know in astronomical observations comes from photons) but also disadvantages:
http://antares.in2p3.fr/Overview/why.html
Neutrinos can be used to probe deeper because they mostly won't get scattered from parts of the Universe that are opaque to photons.
Neutrinos can potentially also be used to probe further back in time than what can be done in photons, as the primordial Universe was opaque to photons until the so-called recombination (a bit of a misnomer as in principle the neutral atoms weren't ever combined before the recombination!)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombination_(cosmology)
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  #1533  
Old 14.10.2014, 19:10
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Re: Ask a Scientist

This is interesting, how have I not found this till today?

I am a biomechanical, sports mechanical and neuromechanical scientist. So, fire away if you have anything to ask in these fields
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  #1534  
Old 26.10.2014, 11:33
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Re: Ask a Scientist

I'd like to ask a question about light. The light from all suns moves at 300,000 kilometres per second in all different directions, so light will be, so to speak, meeting the light from other sources head on and passing. Apparently it doesn't get slower but continues for ever(?). But what happens when it gets to the edge or end or limits of the universe?
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  #1535  
Old 26.10.2014, 12:15
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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I'd like to ask a question about light. The light from all suns moves at 300,000 kilometres per second in all different directions, so light will be, so to speak, meeting the light from other sources head on and passing. Apparently it doesn't get slower but continues for ever(?). But what happens when it gets to the edge or end or limits of the universe?
That is a bit similar to the neutrino question above.

Stars emit photons, but also there is a vast number of primordial photons that remain from when the Universe was very dense and hot, referred to the Cosmic Microwave Background.

We observe these photons to be isotropic (meaning that regardless of where we look, we see they have the same properties).

Superimposed to this there are photons produced in galaxies, by stars and such. Some of those sources will emit roughly equally in all directions but some have preferred directions (for example, pulsars, which emit strongly along an axis).

Do they get slower? Not really as photons always travel at the speed of light (although the speed of light in different materials is different due to interaction with matter, which is why people can use glass to focus light for example, and why it is hard to see without goggles if you open your eyes underwater).
But they can lose energy as they move, and they do because the Universe is expanding, so their frequencies are lowered and this is often referred to as the photons being redshifted (because red is the lowest frequency in the visible spectrum). This is akin to the Doppler effect you usually experience with sounds, for example when an ambulance passes by fast you notice the shift in frequency of the siren as it approaches and then as it distances itself). They can also be absorbed, and that is what happens when you see a star at night, your eyes have absorbed those photons that travelled for such long distances and during such long times. This is somewhat poetic and I like this comic about it:
http://xkcd.com/811/

Photons are not electrically charged, so they essentially don't interact with other photons (at least on a classical level). Other cosmic rays do interact with photons, and in fact there is a hard drop in the number of very high energy charged cosmic rays because at high energies they interact very frequently with the cosmic microwave radiation and lose energy (for those in the know, this is the reason of the GZK cut-off).

The other aspect is the edge of the Universe.
From what we observe of the Universe, the shape it has is "open", so that it is infinite. It does not have edges in that sense. It is easier to do the analogy in shapes that are 1 or 2 dimensional so we can envision them in our 3d (the spacial part of the Universe is 3d so to envision them equivalently you would have to think in 4d which is a bit hard for us to do - at least for me it is).
In 1 dimension we are talking about lines, and it is finite if you take e.g. a circle (just the line, not the inside), infinite if you take the middle case of a (flat) straight line with no curvature, and also infinite if you take the sort of opposite of the circle in terms of curvature (you can think of an hyperbola, because the line of an hyperbola never touches to close). In 2d we are talking about surfaces. There are once again surfaces with positive curvature, like the surface of a sphere (just the 2d surface, not the actual sphere), and those are finite, but there is also the (flat) infinite plane with no curvature and the opposite in terms of curvature to the surface of a sphere is a 2d hyperboloid or something like that.

In 3d I can't envision things geometrically anymore but the generalisation is straightforward. We could have a finite Universe if our space was the 3d equivalent of the sphere's surface (this is NOT a 3d sphere, but rather, the surface of a 4d sphere), but observations indicate that the universe is actually remarkably flat (although a little bit open), and therefore infinite.
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  #1536  
Old 26.10.2014, 14:25
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Re: Ask a Scientist

Thanks. I've always thought of the universe as being a sort of expanding balloon, the image of which is often used to show the expansion of the universe.
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  #1537  
Old 26.10.2014, 22:44
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Re: Ask a Scientist

The Universe is also expanding, but I guess the balloon analogy is misleading as it implies the Universe is closed / finite. It is a good analogy as it shows how e.g. galaxies are getting further apart without being because they themselves are moving, just because the "surface" they are on is stretching.

If that helps, as the universe is almost flat in terms of curvature, you can imagine instead an infinite quadrille paper sheet where, with time, the quadrilles are getting bigger due to expansion.
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  #1538  
Old 28.10.2014, 14:40
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Re: Ask a Scientist

Every astrophysics documentary I watch at some point has the table with a stretchy fabric and weights on it to show how mass distorts space which causes the effect we see as gravity. Then they roll a ball across the deformed fabric to show the effect.

So, given that analogy and my ignorance as to how accurate the analogy is I wondered why does space (the fabric) have to be flat? what if it was originally bumpy just like if the fabric had a dent in it so it would show the effects of a mass being there without a mass and thats what dark matter is? Furthermore you could chase two dents from one side if the fabric to the other and they could pass through each other without interacting which has been an observed phenomena with dark matter.
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  #1539  
Old 28.10.2014, 15:13
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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The Universe is also expanding, but I guess the balloon analogy is misleading as it implies the Universe is closed / finite. It is a good analogy as it shows how e.g. galaxies are getting further apart without being because they themselves are moving, just because the "surface" they are on is stretching.

If that helps, as the universe is almost flat in terms of curvature, you can imagine instead an infinite quadrille paper sheet where, with time, the quadrilles are getting bigger due to expansion.
The universe is expanding slower than predicted in theory, I spot a big hole in someone's mathematics, along with gravitational effects being heavier than predicted
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  #1540  
Old 28.10.2014, 16:39
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Every astrophysics documentary I watch at some point has the table with a stretchy fabric and weights on it to show how mass distorts space which causes the effect we see as gravity. Then they roll a ball across the deformed fabric to show the effect.

So, given that analogy and my ignorance as to how accurate the analogy is I wondered why does space (the fabric) have to be flat? what if it was originally bumpy just like if the fabric had a dent in it so it would show the effects of a mass being there without a mass and thats what dark matter is? Furthermore you could chase two dents from one side if the fabric to the other and they could pass through each other without interacting which has been an observed phenomena with dark matter.
What do you mean by "originally bumpy"? In the sheet analogy, mass/gravity is causing the bumpiness. Do you mean that space-time would be bumpy without anything causing it?

On the other hand, the space is remarkably smooth (not bumpy). This smoothness is thought to be evidence of cosmic inflation: the primordial universe was much bumpier, but smaller spots were more uniform (smooth). After inflation, one of those smaller smooth spots became what we know as the observable universe, thus explaining the smoothness.

I think I did a terrible job of explaining that.
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