Go Back   English Forum Switzerland > Living in Switzerland > Daily life  
Closed Thread
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
  #41  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:01
Forum Veteran
 
Join Date: Oct 2009
Location: Switzerland
Posts: 847
Groaned at 27 Times in 19 Posts
Thanked 1,044 Times in 364 Posts
Panther has a reputation beyond reputePanther has a reputation beyond reputePanther has a reputation beyond reputePanther has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
Am I still allowed to order a zigeunerschnitzel? I could order an untouchable schnitzel but how would I eat it
Here is the Duden meaning of Zigeuner:
Angehörige[r] des Volkes der Sinti und Roma
(umgangssprachlich, meist abwertend) jemand, der ein unstetes Leben führt
http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/Zigeuner
translated into English.....
Members of the people of the Sinti and Roma
(colloquially, usually derogatory) someone who leads an changable life. How did you ever get untouchable from all that? Further does the Zigeunerschnitzel look like a Zigeuner? What does a Gypsy look like?....today, just like you and me

I would agree with you there, if the cookie was eggshell white, has a black hat and long sideburns and a beard.

Quote:
View Post
And in the Netherlands everybody call's them Negerzoenen (negro kisses) the fact that a manufacturer puts another name on it does absolutely not state that the people themselves go-along with such sensitivity, and i have no reason to believe this will be different in other countries.

Now if you don't mind me, I'll grab a Jewcookie, and tomorrow have White Vla as dessert and if I have meat I might open the jar of Zigeunersauce. Next time in the Netherlands I'll buy a bag of Jewfat, and get an Eskimo icecream. (And nope, this ain't a joke)

My point here is that its a dark brown oval shaped candy, that is called a Moor head. Havent we evolved enough, to be able to accept that Switzerland is changing, there are far more dark skinned people living here and contributing to its economy than ever before. Can we not just accept that the name is offensive to dark skinned people.

You can call the candy what you may, I cant change that, but what I would like to see is that officially, Switzerland has evolved.
The following 2 users would like to thank Panther for this useful post:
  #42  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:05
PaddyG's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Pensier, Fribourg
Posts: 9,250
Groaned at 121 Times in 105 Posts
Thanked 16,857 Times in 5,912 Posts
PaddyG has a reputation beyond reputePaddyG has a reputation beyond reputePaddyG has a reputation beyond reputePaddyG has a reputation beyond reputePaddyG has a reputation beyond reputePaddyG has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

We always called them marshmallows or tea-cakes in the UK. I have to admit, I do wince when I hear them referred to as "tête à negre" down our way (not so often nowadays, as inferred above).
The following 2 users would like to thank PaddyG for this useful post:
  #43  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:18
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

The following 4 users would like to thank for this useful post:
  #44  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:18
Samaire13's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Apr 2014
Location: CH
Posts: 4,270
Groaned at 111 Times in 90 Posts
Thanked 7,005 Times in 2,676 Posts
Samaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
They were always called chocolate teacakes when I was a kid.

http://www.tunnock.co.uk/products/teacakes/
Hm, they look similar, but with more biscuit. At least if I google teacakes, this one comes up: http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2008/...35_468x431.jpg The Swiss version only has a thin waffle at the bottom. At least the ones that are store-bought. But teacakes are probably as close to the Swiss/German Mohrenkopf/Schokokuss/whatever as it gets.

You can buy a different kind of Mohrenkopf in some Confiseries here btw: https://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/me...mohrenkopf.jpg These have some kind of a vanilla-cream inside rather than the marshmallow-adjacent fluffy white stuff.


I'm glad we're all spending time on the important questions in life
  #45  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:24
22 yards's Avatar
Only in moderation
 
Join Date: Jul 2009
Location: Basel-Land
Posts: 8,579
Groaned at 252 Times in 205 Posts
Thanked 16,889 Times in 6,943 Posts
22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
I always thought that the English have some oatmeal biscuits (cookies? I'll never get this right) with their tea...
It's pretty simple: never cookies in BrE. Live life by that rule and you won't go wrong.
  #46  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:33
Treverus's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Dec 2007
Location: Luxembourg
Posts: 11,626
Groaned at 290 Times in 247 Posts
Thanked 21,781 Times in 7,935 Posts
Treverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
I knew them as mohrenkopf or negerkuss since before I even knew what a "mohr" was. Even now I'd relate the word "mohr" more to "mohrenkopf' than to an African-American person. And this is the first I hear about these fine calory-bombs should be racist. Never made that connection. I think, it's innocent, but then I'm learning something new every day
A Mohr is not an African-American, but African, especially from the Northern parts (Mohr comes from Mauren as in Mauretania). We used "Negros heads" as symbols for centuries in every form imaginable. This is the coat of arms of pope benedict XVI, that's not 17h century but 2013!


Quote:
View Post
I must admit, at my daughter's birthday party she said she wanted to play 'who's afraid of the black man' and I told her very clearly that it was racist and she shouldn't say that. She played 'it' instead. Some parents looked shocked like they never associated it with being afraid of black men, one smiled and nodded at me..... who happened not to be white.
Great effort, but to be honest: "the black man" is in that tradition pretty clearly the devil. We discussed that till hell and back in the thread wether or not "Schmutzli" is racist and it simply is a demon, not a person of different skin color.

Quote:
View Post
My point here is that its a dark brown oval shaped candy, that is called a Moor head. Havent we evolved enough, to be able to accept that Switzerland is changing, there are far more dark skinned people living here and contributing to its economy than ever before. Can we not just accept that the name is offensive to dark skinned people.
I surely can, but I am an expat. You should not forget that the strongest political movement, with some 30% of votes, usually does not want European immigrants to be here, let alone any foreigners with different skin color (They seem to make an exception if their older male members get themselves some exotic looking wives, but that's another story...).

Let's be very frank: Switzerland was not like many other European nations build on the hard labour in some colony. So the "black people contribute to the land" argument hardly works... a lot of people here would love to turn back the time to not see the immigration they do today. I don't agree with them, but its typically those people who'd insist that it is tradition to call the candy Negerkuss, Negerkopf or similar.

I personally think that there are way worse things happening in the world to worry about than a candy that is so out of fashion that I honestly cannot recall in what decade I last ate one.
This user would like to thank Treverus for this useful post:
  #47  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:35
aSwissInTheUS's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Nov 2007
Location: Zurich area
Posts: 11,473
Groaned at 86 Times in 77 Posts
Thanked 17,456 Times in 7,759 Posts
aSwissInTheUS has a reputation beyond reputeaSwissInTheUS has a reputation beyond reputeaSwissInTheUS has a reputation beyond reputeaSwissInTheUS has a reputation beyond reputeaSwissInTheUS has a reputation beyond reputeaSwissInTheUS has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
I must admit, at my daughter's birthday party she said she wanted to play 'who's afraid of the black man' and I told her very clearly that it was racist and she shouldn't say that.
It is not racist. Schwarzer Mann does not mean black person
This is so ed up. Just because we call now people with a darker skin tone "black" does not mean that any person labeled as "black" means the same. Black, the proper blackish black, in German has a different meaning. It could mean conservative Christians (in politics) but also a sinister person. See also Schwarzfahren, Schwarzarbeit. If you need something to think about, then better think why a black person should actually be called Schwarzer in German given its true meaning and if not Schwarz is actually a racist term.

Quote:
View Post
I knew them as mohrenkopf or negerkuss since before I even knew what a "mohr" was. Even now I'd relate the word "mohr" more to "mohrenkopf' than to an African-American person. And this is the first I hear about these fine calory-bombs should be racist. Never made that connection. I think, it's innocent, but then I'm learning something new every day
African-America? What? Not every black person is an African-America. A Mohr, a Muslim from North-Africa decent, and the African-American could not be farther apart from each other.

Quote:
View Post
I think these two posts sum it up. It is politically incorrect, with racist connotations, but the Swiss (bless their little cotton socks) are still naive enough to not really get the link, even in this day and age, until someone explains it to them slowly and carefully. That does not, however, make them racists.

In fact it's one of the things I love dearly about the Swiss, this cultural and racial naivety that against all odds still exists in a central European western society. They still have time to change in sensible ways, unlike the rest of Europe and indeed the world where political correctness has already warped and twisted our ideals of cultural and racial normality to beyond the paranoia barriers.
Sorry, but if you change the meaning of words and use it for new stuff as in the case of Schwarz you are bound to bump into problems sooner or later.
And in case of Mohrenkopf, how about "Schoggikopf"? Is that a better term more to your likening?
__________________
"Whoa, careful now. These are dangerous streets for us upper-lower-middle-class types. So avoid eye contact, watch your pocketbook, and suspect everyone."
The following 3 users would like to thank aSwissInTheUS for this useful post:
  #48  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:38
mimi1981's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Apr 2007
Location: London, previously Basel
Posts: 3,791
Groaned at 21 Times in 19 Posts
Thanked 5,792 Times in 2,173 Posts
mimi1981 has a reputation beyond reputemimi1981 has a reputation beyond reputemimi1981 has a reputation beyond reputemimi1981 has a reputation beyond reputemimi1981 has a reputation beyond reputemimi1981 has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
Some of us will remember Black Jack sweets, but not many will remember the original logo.

My personal favourite for inappropriate edibles is Minni di Virgini created by nuns.

http://www.mangiabenepasta.com/virgins_breasts.html


I always preferred the fruit salads.....does that have negative connotations to people with mental health issues?


Robinson's marmalade was always on our breakfast table as a kid....sadly no more...even Enid Blyton went there :


This user would like to thank mimi1981 for this useful post:
  #49  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:40
Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2012
Location: Zurich
Posts: 227
Groaned at 28 Times in 17 Posts
Thanked 229 Times in 110 Posts
DanLF has earned some respectDanLF has earned some respect
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

It reminds me of the Robertson's Marmalade when I was a kid and all the Golliwog (little black boy) branding that came with it. I remember we even had a Golliwog marmalade spoon and I thought it was very special.

I had no idea as a kid, and I don't think my parents even thought about it, how racist it was.

So yes, while many countries in Europe have correctly moved on from this and ditched it all, the Swiss still cling on, obliviously I hope.

Here's something I was told by a Swiss guy a while back, who I don't consider as an out and out racist, just a normal guy. He was looking at a tea-pot that had been given as a gift and it had a black tea filter inside that was connected to the lid. He pulled it out, laughed and said "look, it's a n****r sock". I don't think I'm being overly sensitive to find this racist. Maybe he finds this acceptable because he also enjoys a MohrenKopf from time to time?
  #50  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:45
amogles's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Mar 2008
Location: Zurich
Posts: 10,575
Groaned at 222 Times in 187 Posts
Thanked 21,978 Times in 9,337 Posts
amogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
I suppose you could order a Cinto-Ethnischer-Minderheit-aus-der-Gruppe-der-Sinti-und-Roma Schnitzel with chips red/white and a salad. Easy on the Ketschap.
Some years back, I was having a conversation on a train with an individual who referred to himself as a Gypsy. He got very worked up about the terms Roma and Sinti saying he associated with neither group and using those terms to refer to Gypsies in a blanket way was very offensive and excluding of other groups.
This user would like to thank amogles for this useful post:
  #51  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:48
Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2012
Location: Zurich
Posts: 227
Groaned at 28 Times in 17 Posts
Thanked 229 Times in 110 Posts
DanLF has earned some respectDanLF has earned some respect
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
I personally think that there are way worse things happening in the world to worry about than a candy that is so out of fashion that I honestly cannot recall in what decade I last ate one.
Broken window theory. If you make sure you fix the small things early (in terms of a childs development) they won't grow up thinking casual racism is acceptable.
This user would like to thank DanLF for this useful post:
  #52  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:57
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
Broken window theory. If you make sure you fix the small things early (in terms of a childs development) they won't grow up thinking casual racism is acceptable.
Not sure that's completely right. I grew up with older relatives being openly racist (not my parents but they didn't pull up the elders with their comments) but neither my sister nor I have adopted their views and attitudes.

I think there's a lot more value in helping kids understand the wider world, its history and being taught to keep an open mind. Tolerance and respect then fall naturally into place.

Hysterically clutching at pearls every time someone says "blackboard" instead of "chalkboard" or offers a Mohrenkopf, or refers to labels on marmalade (Golliwog figure) is only papering over the cracks.
The following 2 users would like to thank for this useful post:
  #53  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:57
Samaire13's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Apr 2014
Location: CH
Posts: 4,270
Groaned at 111 Times in 90 Posts
Thanked 7,005 Times in 2,676 Posts
Samaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond reputeSamaire13 has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post

So yes, while many countries in Europe have correctly moved on from this and ditched it all, the Swiss still cling on, obliviously I hope.
They're not oblivious, but simply stubborn. I bet my head that 90% of the Swiss including myself couldn't care less whether that damn thing is called Mohrenkopf or Schoggikuss or whatever else. It is a freaking dessert.

But that's exactly the point. It's a dessert. It doesn't deserve extensive discussions let alone a committee (!). What tends to bug "the Swiss" as a group (as much as you can look at them as a group) is the ridiculously over-the-top political correctness, no, paranoia, on things that are utterly irrelevant.

And I realize in other countries you have to walk on eggshells as soon as certain matters are concerned, but not so much here. And the more this political correctness is enforced here, the more stubborn the people become.

P.S. "Schwarze Maa" is not racist AT ALL, but simply refers to a man in black clothing or a shadow-like shape. And this is yet another good example for all the paranoia. Not everything that contains the word "black" is racist or even referring to "Africa" in some way or another or "slavery" or whatever else it may be.
The following 3 users would like to thank Samaire13 for this useful post:
  #54  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:58
Treverus's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Dec 2007
Location: Luxembourg
Posts: 11,626
Groaned at 290 Times in 247 Posts
Thanked 21,781 Times in 7,935 Posts
Treverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond reputeTreverus has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
Broken window theory. If you make sure you fix the small things early (in terms of a childs development) they won't grow up thinking casual racism is acceptable.
Sure, but the point here is: Nobody buys this stuff these days. It really just seems a PR stunt of a struggling Swiss chocolate manufacturer to me. And it works beautifully from the conservatives going up in arms to preserve a tradition (Really?) to us foreigners debating racism...
  #55  
Old 19.09.2017, 09:59
22 yards's Avatar
Only in moderation
 
Join Date: Jul 2009
Location: Basel-Land
Posts: 8,579
Groaned at 252 Times in 205 Posts
Thanked 16,889 Times in 6,943 Posts
22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute22 yards has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
Black, the proper blackish black, in German has a different meaning. It could mean conservative Christians (in politics) but also a sinister person. See also Schwarzfahren, Schwarzarbeit. If you need something to think about, then better think why a black person should actually be called Schwarzer in German given its true meaning and if not Schwarz is actually a racist term.
I'm really loath to give fuel to the PC brigade -- this whole debate about racist confectionery is absolute nonsense, in my opinion -- but to be fair, you need to consider the etymology of the word "schwarz" in the non-colour sense. "Sinister" (a word you used in your post) coming to English directly from Latin, meaning "left", should be as highly offensive to left-handed people as "schwarz" and related terms seem to be to dark-skinned people. But it's not, is it? It's all about who screams loudest, and the left-handed lobby just isn't strong or organised enough.

"Black" is used in English in the same way as you mentioned in your post. "Working black" means to be paid under the table, without taxes. You can be in a black mood, the pot can call the kettle black... it'll be a black day when the PC brigade wins. In some of these cases, the word "black" derives from references to dark-skinned people. It's not something to get excited about; it's the evolution of language and yes, I'm sure language will evolve further.

Quote:
View Post
It reminds me of the Robertson's Marmalade when I was a kid and all the Golliwog (little black boy) branding that came with it. I remember we even had a Golliwog marmalade spoon and I thought it was very special.

I had no idea as a kid, and I don't think my parents even thought about it, how racist it was.
This has always puzzled me. In what way are golliwogs and Robertson's marmalade branding racist? Is there any hint of supremacy or derogatory comment in putting an image of a black child on a jar of marmalade, or of colouring a child's doll black? Is Barbie racist too, because she's white? What about the Smurfs, or the Simpsons? To me, it seems that attempting to eradicate golliwogs and imagery of black children in a white society is a supremely racist act -- sanitization, or ethnic cleansing, by another name! Would we prefer to see children in the UK and elsewhere grow up without any knowledge of other skin types and cultures?

Last edited by 22 yards; 19.09.2017 at 16:04. Reason: Tense typo
This user would like to thank 22 yards for this useful post:
  #56  
Old 19.09.2017, 10:03
amogles's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Mar 2008
Location: Zurich
Posts: 10,575
Groaned at 222 Times in 187 Posts
Thanked 21,978 Times in 9,337 Posts
amogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond reputeamogles has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

ever seen the flag of Corsica?

The following 3 users would like to thank amogles for this useful post:
  #57  
Old 19.09.2017, 10:08
pilatus1's Avatar
Forum Veteran
 
Join Date: Oct 2012
Location: Milky Way
Posts: 1,669
Groaned at 141 Times in 97 Posts
Thanked 4,396 Times in 1,749 Posts
pilatus1 has a reputation beyond reputepilatus1 has a reputation beyond reputepilatus1 has a reputation beyond reputepilatus1 has a reputation beyond reputepilatus1 has a reputation beyond reputepilatus1 has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?



Can't we all just get along?
The following 4 users would like to thank pilatus1 for this useful post:
  #58  
Old 19.09.2017, 10:10
Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2012
Location: Zurich
Posts: 227
Groaned at 28 Times in 17 Posts
Thanked 229 Times in 110 Posts
DanLF has earned some respectDanLF has earned some respect
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
They're not oblivious, but simply stubborn. I bet my head that 80% of the Swiss including myself couldn't care less whether that damn thing is called Mohrenkopf or Schoggikuss or whatever else. It is a freaking dessert.

But that's exactly the point. It's a dessert. It doesn't deserve extensive discussions let alone a committee (!). What tends to bug "the Swiss" as a group (as much as you can look at them as a group) is the ridiculously over-the-top political correctness, no, paranoia, on things that are utterly irrelevant.

And I realize in other countries you have to walk on eggshells as soon as certain matters are concerned, but not so much here.
To me, it's about not teaching children from an early age that even the most subtle form of racism is acceptable.
The following 2 users would like to thank DanLF for this useful post:
  #59  
Old 19.09.2017, 10:13
grumpygrapefruit's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Feb 2007
Location: Zuriwest
Posts: 6,216
Groaned at 37 Times in 36 Posts
Thanked 16,483 Times in 4,307 Posts
grumpygrapefruit has a reputation beyond reputegrumpygrapefruit has a reputation beyond reputegrumpygrapefruit has a reputation beyond reputegrumpygrapefruit has a reputation beyond reputegrumpygrapefruit has a reputation beyond reputegrumpygrapefruit has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
Now that you mentioned I gave a second thought to the way that cheese is called, you know - the Tête de Moine....and I think it's gross. It smells like unwashed feet and people even shred it themselves. Yuck.
Unlike the delicious Galician Queso Tetilla (literally "Titty Cheese"). I'm not sure whether it's the taste or the sensory delight of sinking your teeth into it that is the most enjoyable.

The following 2 users would like to thank grumpygrapefruit for this useful post:
  #60  
Old 19.09.2017, 10:13
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Re: Is the Mohrenkopf a racist piece of candy?

Quote:
View Post
To me, it's about not teaching children from an early age that even the most subtle form of racism is acceptable.
But if you teach kids to respect everyone equally, you are avoiding the pitfall of singling out people or groups.

Treat everyone how you yourself would like to be treated, no ifs or buts.

Isn't that a far easier lesson for a kid?
The following 4 users would like to thank for this useful post:
Closed Thread




Currently Active Users Viewing This Thread: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
 
Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are Off
Pingbacks are Off
Refbacks are Off


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
How long is a piece of string onei Jokes/funnies 12 13.10.2012 16:44
Is the St George's flag a racist symbol? scribble General off-topic 70 11.06.2010 19:14
The Swiss immigration system is 'racist'... Gav Swiss politics/news 184 04.12.2009 19:48
A foot in the door...where is the missing piece to this puzzle? anonymous86 Employment 7 03.06.2008 07:57
Is the English Forum racist? piko General off-topic 56 09.10.2006 12:53


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 23:04.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2020, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
LinkBacks Enabled by vBSEO 3.1.0