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  #1381  
Old 22.01.2013, 21:32
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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I'd guess running develops a lot more heat energy, both from chemical reactions and friction. That has to come from somewhere. But I'm only a code monkey, so don't rely on me.
Sure the OP assumes the body is a point mass that glides forward propelled by a single linear force. But we are far from that: a blob full of organs, attached four articulated gangly appendages and a dense round one that needs to be kept cool. The forward motion comes from efficiently flailing the limbs in one direction then another.

Even an extremely efficient runner is dealing with multiple direction changes of the limbs themselves and those limbs in space. Of course the momentum of these points of mass is not linear to speed, but exponential. Even ignoring metabolic efficiency of providing the energy, I would guesstimate the energy demand of running vs walking at half the speed is 3-4x greater.
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  #1382  
Old 22.01.2013, 21:47
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Sure the OP assumes the body is a point mass that glides forward propelled by a single linear force. But we are far from that: a blob full of organs, attached four articulated gangly appendages and a dense round one that needs to be kept cool. The forward motion comes from efficiently flailing the limbs in one direction then another.

Even an extremely efficient runner is dealing with multiple direction changes of the limbs themselves and those limbs in space. Of course the momentum of these points of mass is not linear to speed, but exponential. Even ignoring metabolic efficiency of providing the energy, I would guesstimate the energy demand of running vs walking at half the speed is 3-4x greater.
Actually, as running evolved in the environment, this action/behavior takes into account environmental factors (gravity makes it significantly easier to propel the legs downward) as well as the embodiment of the agent (human, in this case, have soft, stretchy muscles, tendons, and ligaments that store some of the energy from impact on the ground and return it to help propel the leg back up and forward, for example) that might serve to make running a more efficient process than might otherwise be believed.
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  #1383  
Old 23.01.2013, 08:38
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Actually, as running evolved in the environment, this action/behavior takes into account environmental factors (gravity makes it significantly easier to propel the legs downward) as well as the embodiment of the agent (human, in this case, have soft, stretchy muscles, tendons, and ligaments that store some of the energy from impact on the ground and return it to help propel the leg back up and forward, for example) that might serve to make running a more efficient process than might otherwise be believed.
It seems even the scientists haven't quite resolved this debate.

http://www.runningplanet.com/trainin...s-walking.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20613650
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  #1384  
Old 23.01.2013, 11:20
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Re: Ask a Scientist

Thanks for both those links dannyt986.

As I understand it, if you walk faster than you are comfortable with you will burn more calories than if you run. The heavier you are the more energy you will use and walking is the preferred method of excercise until you start to reach your normal weight.

It makes sense really. If you walk faster than you are comfortable with, it is then more efficient to run, hence why you burn more calories.

This being said, when I read this quote below (from the link above), I couldn't help but think of an old Snickers commercial with Mr-T (Youtube below)
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but when walking at increasing paces you eventually reach a point at which the walking becomes more difficult than running. That point is called the preferred walk-run transition speed (PTS). It is at this point that walking begins to burn more calories than running.
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  #1385  
Old 04.03.2013, 21:21
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Re: Ask a Scientist

Here’s a few more almost scientific questions…

1. When I’m walking in the forests around Zurich, sometimes I come across little caterpillars which are hanging from trees on a slender thread, almost like a spider. If they land on you and touch you then they immediately bite… which is why I now watch out for and avoid them. Does anyone know what they are?

2. I know people who have died very soon (ie within a couple of months) after they have retired. Is there any physiological reason behind this? I guess it could be a change of stress, but it seems to be fairly well distributed, vocation-wise.

3. When rockets blast off to visit the ISS, they take about 9 minutes to enter low earth orbit, but then they take another two days to approach and dock with the space station. Why does it take so long to get close to the space station? The return flight seems to be a couple of hours in comparison, but the principles must be the same… leave a precise location, and land at another precise location.

4. On the subject, can someone explain escape velocity in words of one syllable. I understand that it is the speed needed to break free from a gravitational field, and it is about 11km/s on the Equator. However, if I throw a stone up in the air it a) is travelling away from the earth, and b) is doing so at a speed less than 11km/s. Using that example, it seems that it is not necessary to travel at escape velocity to break free from a gravitational field. It's also fairly straightforward in a propelled vehicle such as a plane, to get to eg 40000 feet, not using escape velocity.

5. Is it true what they say about people with big feet?
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  #1386  
Old 04.03.2013, 22:24
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Here’s a few more almost scientific questions…

1. When I’m walking in the forests around Zurich, sometimes I come across little caterpillars which are hanging from trees on a slender thread, almost like a spider. If they land on you and touch you then they immediately bite… which is why I now watch out for and avoid them. Does anyone know what they are?

2. I know people who have died very soon (ie within a couple of months) after they have retired. Is there any physiological reason behind this? I guess it could be a change of stress, but it seems to be fairly well distributed, vocation-wise.

3. When rockets blast off to visit the ISS, they take about 9 minutes to enter low earth orbit, but then they take another two days to approach and dock with the space station. Why does it take so long to get close to the space station? The return flight seems to be a couple of hours in comparison, but the principles must be the same… leave a precise location, and land at another precise location.

4. On the subject, can someone explain escape velocity in words of one syllable. I understand that it is the speed needed to break free from a gravitational field, and it is about 11km/s on the Equator. However, if I throw a stone up in the air it a) is travelling away from the earth, and b) is doing so at a speed less than 11km/s. Using that example, it seems that it is not necessary to travel at escape velocity to break free from a gravitational field. It's also fairly straightforward in a propelled vehicle such as a plane, to get to eg 40000 feet, not using escape velocity.

5. Is it true what they say about people with big feet?
About "Is it true what they say about people with big feet? ". No I have relatively small feet but nevertheless.......................
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  #1387  
Old 05.03.2013, 00:10
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Re: Ask a Scientist

I can help (ish) with three of your questions.

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2. I know people who have died very soon (ie within a couple of months) after they have retired. Is there any physiological reason behind this? I guess it could be a change of stress, but it seems to be fairly well distributed, vocation-wise.
They've retired because they're old. Old people die. Next question?

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4. On the subject, can someone explain escape velocity in words of one syllable. I understand that it is the speed needed to break free from a gravitational field, and it is about 11km/s on the Equator. However, if I throw a stone up in the air it a) is travelling away from the earth, and b) is doing so at a speed less than 11km/s. Using that example, it seems that it is not necessary to travel at escape velocity to break free from a gravitational field. It's also fairly straightforward in a propelled vehicle such as a plane, to get to eg 40000 feet, not using escape velocity.
You're basically correct with your definition of escape velocity. However, you're not correct that the stone you threw in the air has broken free from the Earth's gravitational field -- by definition, it has not escaped, since it falls back to Earth. If you threw it at 11 m/s or more, and maintained that velocity, you'd succeed. The key is that the stone decelerates very shortly after you throw it, so has no chance of reaching escape velocity.

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5. Is it true what they say about people with big feet?

Yes. They have big shoes.
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  #1388  
Old 05.03.2013, 00:29
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Yes. They have big shoes.
Or painful feet.
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  #1389  
Old 05.03.2013, 11:06
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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1. When I’m walking in the forests around Zurich, sometimes I come across little caterpillars which are hanging from trees on a slender thread, almost like a spider. If they land on you and touch you then they immediately bite… which is why I now watch out for and avoid them. Does anyone know what they are?
I'm new to Switzerland and know the most about N. American species but my specialty is in all insects, worldwide, that bite, sting, burrow in skin, or transmit pathogens to humans and other animals. From what I know, there are no caterpillars that routinely bite. However, there are plenty of caterpillars that have urticating (irritating) hairs and stinging spines -- some not readily visible to the naked eye. Lots of caterpillars use "lifelines", descents on threads of silk, to escape danger or recover from falls.

I might be able to help you identify them if you can give me some information. How long are they (e.g., more than 1 cm, less)? What color are they (e.g., bright green, brown)? Are they long and slender, or squat and fat? Do they look hairy or smooth?

P.S. There are some moths that irritate the eyeballs of mammals so they can then drink tears, and others that pierce skin for a blood meal. http://scienceblogs.com/zooillogix/2...vampire-moths/
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  #1390  
Old 05.03.2013, 11:23
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Re: Ask a Scientist

Here's a short and sweet little article about escape velocity, in rather easy-to-understand terms.
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  #1391  
Old 05.03.2013, 11:31
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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3. When rockets blast off to visit the ISS, they take about 9 minutes to enter low earth orbit, but then they take another two days to approach and dock with the space station. Why does it take so long to get close to the space station? The return flight seems to be a couple of hours in comparison, but the principles must be the same… leave a precise location, and land at another precise location.
Precise location? For the ISS yes. you have to dock at a very very precise location. +/- 5 cm. But the Kazakh Steppe is wide and large (804,500 square kilometer). Also the ISS zips around earth with a speed of 7,700 m/s, exact depends on its height. The speed has to be precisely match. But to dock at the ISS you have not only to match speed but direction too. Thats why it is called rocket science and not 'driving a car'.



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4. On the subject, can someone explain escape velocity in words of one syllable. I understand that it is the speed needed to break free from a gravitational field, and it is about 11km/s on the Equator. However, if I throw a stone up in the air it a) is travelling away from the earth, and b) is doing so at a speed less than 11km/s. Using that example, it seems that it is not necessary to travel at escape velocity to break free from a gravitational field. It's also fairly straightforward in a propelled vehicle such as a plane, to get to eg 40000 feet, not using escape velocity.
Think, a big big ball, no air, no day, no night. Now you throw small ball from top of big ball. Do not throw the small ball at big ball. How fast do you have to throw such that small ball will not come back to big ball aye? Two things are key points. One, how far you are from the core of the big ball. Two, how much stuff you need to make big ball. Math guys say speed will be sqrt(2*G*M/r). M is how much stuff in kg you need to make big ball. r is how far from core of big ball you throw small ball. It is in m. G is some fix thing it is 6.67×10^−11 m^3/(kg*s). If you throw small ball more far from core of big ball speed to throw will be less. View, small ball is just a small ball, no help to keep speed since throw of small ball.
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  #1392  
Old 05.03.2013, 11:31
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Here's a short and sweet little article about escape velocity, in rather easy-to-understand terms.
It's simply a partial copy and link to the wikipedia age. It does make an interesting point about the common misconception that something has to move at that speed or greater to 'escape' gravity. Not so.
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  #1393  
Old 05.03.2013, 13:07
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Re: Ask a Scientist

4. On the subject, can someone explain escape velocity in words of one syllable. I understand that it is the speed needed to break free from a gravitational field, and it is about 11km/s on the Equator. However, if I throw a stone up in the air it a) is travelling away from the earth, and b) is doing so at a speed less than 11km/s. Using that example, it seems that it is not necessary to travel at escape velocity to break free from a gravitational field. It's also fairly straightforward in a propelled vehicle such as a plane, to get to eg 40000 feet, not using escape velocity.

Yes, the point is that your stone didn't escape.... it fell back down. If you'd managed to throw it at 11km/s then it would have kept on going forever. Escape velocity is the speed you need to get to be able to go up, and up, and up without ever having to push any more.
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  #1394  
Old 05.03.2013, 13:18
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Yes, the point is that your stone didn't escape.... it fell back down. If you'd managed to throw it at 11km/s then it would have kept on going forever. Escape velocity is the speed you need to get to be able to go up, and up, and up without ever having to push any more.
Even if you manage to throw the stone 11 km/s it would not escape. First, the atmosphere (air) would slow it down. Second, even if we disregard air resistance you still have to take care that you throw the stone eastward and/or directly south or north.
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  #1395  
Old 05.03.2013, 13:24
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Even if you manage to throw the stone 11 km/s it would not escape. First, the atmosphere (air) would slow it down. Second, even if we disregard air resistance you still have to take care that you throw the stone eastward and/or directly south or north.
Yes, if you want to be really pedantic about it.
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  #1396  
Old 05.03.2013, 13:43
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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It's simply a partial copy and link to the wikipedia age. It does make an interesting point about the common misconception that something has to move at that speed or greater to 'escape' gravity. Not so.
Sure, but it boils it down to the easy stuff instead of confusing the reader with all sorts of figures and symbols. That's why I shared.
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  #1397  
Old 06.03.2013, 21:27
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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I might be able to help you identify them if you can give me some information. How long are they (e.g., more than 1 cm, less)? What color are they (e.g., bright green, brown)? Are they long and slender, or squat and fat? Do they look hairy or smooth?
They are about a centimetre long and grey maggot-like. I guess they attempt to eat the first thing they land on, hence me thinking that they bite.
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  #1398  
Old 06.03.2013, 21:44
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Even if you manage to throw the stone 11 km/s it would not escape. First, the atmosphere (air) would slow it down. Second, even if we disregard air resistance you still have to take care that you throw the stone eastward and/or directly south or north.
A better example: Felix Baumgartner in the Red Bull Stratos balloon. The balloon went up and up to about 39 kilometres above the earth. The balloon does not do 11 km/s but it is still escaping earth's gravity in the course of the ascent.

I get the general gist of the escape velocity idea - ie if I fire a rocket or bullet so that it is travelling 11 km/s then it will escape earth's gravity and keep on going. It just seems that other things such as balloons and stones also travel away from the earth (and by implication, earth's gravity) at a much lower velocity.

If I fire a different rocket in the air which is travelling at eg 50 metres a second (instead of 11 km/s), and the rocket has plenty of fuel and can sustain the 50 m/s for ages - will it eventually escape earth's gravity? It will never fall back to earth because it has plenty of fuel, and it is always being propelled away from the earth. What happens?
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Old 07.03.2013, 09:32
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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If I fire a different rocket in the air which is travelling at eg 50 metres a second (instead of 11 km/s), and the rocket has plenty of fuel and can sustain the 50 m/s for ages - will it eventually escape earth's gravity?
Yes. And the linked articles are quite clear on this. An object could be moving at a minuscule speed relative to earth but still 'escape' as long as that speed is maintained by some additional force.

The key point is that the total energy needed to escape (disregarding air resistance which varies with the square of speed) will be the same regardless of the speed used - just that in the bullet example all that energy is imparted in one bang, so that initial speed must 'contain' the kinetic energy needed, whereas the rocket stores it in the form of potential energy (i.e. fuel) and converts in later to kinetic (i.e. moving) energy.
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Old 07.03.2013, 09:35
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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They are about a centimetre long and grey maggot-like. I guess they attempt to eat the first thing they land on, hence me thinking that they bite.
A caterpillar drops on a lifeline because it fell or for predator escape, and the first thing it usually does after dropping is climb back up the line. I have doubts the highest priority after dropping would be eating. Also, a centimeter-long caterpillar might not have moutparts large enough for you to notice.

Have you seen them biting you? I think you might be feeling "crochets" on their feet (like very long, hard, pointy nails) or hairs on their body. Do they look like any of the following:

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_6sYA7Iz1xg...read+-+web.jpg

http://www.thecolorawards.com/cache/...5&aid=3&size=m

http://www.ispot.org.za/sites/defaul...698d94b8_1.jpg

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_rzo8wjfyCs...L_L2_8p2mm.jpg

Last edited by Holly210; 07.03.2013 at 09:36. Reason: forgot a sentence
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