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  #1681  
Old 25.08.2017, 12:04
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Re: Ask a Scientist

You're getting to the crux of my query now. The Human Genome Project finished in 2003 and took the magnanimous step of publishing their findings free online, yet the first person I know personally to have tailored treatment, was last year. Now that our nephew is up against it, and despite having a tested stem cell donor match in his brother, there is no talk of tailored treatment that I heard so much of from my friend last year.

Is it the case that only certain areas (not just cancers), perhaps more common and better funded by charities, are able to investigate this route to it's current full extent?
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  #1682  
Old 25.08.2017, 14:38
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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You're getting to the crux of my query now. The Human Genome Project finished in 2003 and took the magnanimous step of publishing their findings free online, yet the first person I know personally to have tailored treatment, was last year. Now that our nephew is up against it, and despite having a tested stem cell donor match in his brother, there is no talk of tailored treatment that I heard so much of from my friend last year.

Is it the case that only certain areas (not just cancers), perhaps more common and better funded by charities, are able to investigate this route to it's current full extent?
Of course, money is part of the problem, but I think there is a real issue that the links between genes and disease are much more complex than was originally expected/hoped.

The key point is that having a particular gene is one thing, but having it switched on is another, so just knowing what genes someone has is much less predictive than was originally hoped. If I understood correctly, this is what "epigenetics" is about.
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  #1683  
Old 25.08.2017, 14:54
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Of course, money is part of the problem, but I think there is a real issue that the links between genes and disease are much more complex than was originally expected/hoped.

The key point is that having a particular gene is one thing, but having it switched on is another, so just knowing what genes someone has is much less predictive than was originally hoped. If I understood correctly, this is what "epigenetics" is about.
Indeed, the whole topic of switching genes on and off is little understood or practised. There is a whole lot of epigenetic research underway.

If the technique could be mastered then it promises to be a very powerful technique unless (like an onion) there proves to be yet another layer of complexity to master.
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  #1684  
Old 25.08.2017, 17:01
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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The key point is that having a particular gene is one thing, but having it switched on is another, so just knowing what genes someone has is much less predictive than was originally hoped. If I understood correctly, this is what "epigenetics" is about.
Thank you.
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  #1685  
Old 25.08.2017, 21:52
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Re: Ask a Scientist

Immune system is the middle man between genes and illnesses.
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  #1686  
Old 25.08.2017, 22:05
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Immune system is the middle man between genes and illnesses.
No, Immune system is the middle man between illnesses and wellness.
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  #1687  
Old 01.09.2017, 02:57
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Re: Ask a Scientist

With Novartis' new treatment, Kymriah, in the news yesterday for getting FDA approval in the US, does this mean it already has approval in Switzerland? Also, does anyone know if it's suitable for treating HLH as well as lymphoblastic leukemia?

https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/fda-app...-ever/43482544
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  #1688  
Old 01.09.2017, 03:46
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Re: Ask a Scientist

Also have a silly question...
I've seen quite a few little geckos in the garden this summer, and on a daily basis lately. Do they hibernate in winter?
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  #1689  
Old 01.09.2017, 06:39
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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With Novartis' new treatment, Kymriah, in the news yesterday for getting FDA approval in the US, does this mean it already has approval in Switzerland? Also, does anyone know if it's suitable for treating HLH as well as lymphoblastic leukemia?

https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/fda-app...-ever/43482544
Not yet, it seems.
<<Die amerikanische Zulassungsbehörde FDA hat deshalb am Mittwoch für die Kymriah genannte Behandlung grünes Licht gegeben. Die europäische und die schweizerische Behörde dürften bald folgen.>>
(Green light for it in USA .... Europe and Switzerland likely to follow soon)
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  #1690  
Old 01.09.2017, 09:25
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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With Novartis' new treatment, Kymriah, in the news yesterday for getting FDA approval in the US, does this mean it already has approval in Switzerland? Also, does anyone know if it's suitable for treating HLH as well as lymphoblastic leukemia?

https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/fda-app...-ever/43482544
Switzerland does not automatically follow the FDA for drug approvals; it has its own approval process overseen by Swissmedic. Few countries simply accept FDA approval and apply it to their own citizens, actually. However, FDA approval is a fairly good indicator that a drug will be approved in other jurisdictions, eventually.

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Also have a silly question...
I've seen quite a few little geckos in the garden this summer, and on a daily basis lately. Do they hibernate in winter?
Sort of. They brumate -- the reptilian equivalent to hibernation. Brumation is not the same as hibernation; reptiles don't "sleep" through winter, but go into a state of lethargy. Suffice to say, geckos don't gallop around in winter, anyway.
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  #1691  
Old 01.09.2017, 09:58
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Switzerland does not automatically follow the FDA for drug approvals; it has its own approval process overseen by Swissmedic. Few countries simply accept FDA approval and apply it to their own citizens, actually. However, FDA approval is a fairly good indicator that a drug will be approved in other jurisdictions, eventually.
Pretty much everyone seeks FDA approval first, then EMA, Health Canada, TGA (Australia), Swissmedic etc.
Unfortunately, different regulatory bodies have their own criteria or interpretation of the existing guidelines, so what works for FDA, might not be acceptable for EMA, and vice versa. It's a right royal pain in the arse when preparing submissions .
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  #1692  
Old 01.09.2017, 13:43
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Pretty much everyone seeks FDA approval first, then EMA, Health Canada, TGA (Australia), Swissmedic etc.
Unfortunately, different regulatory bodies have their own criteria or interpretation of the existing guidelines, so what works for FDA, might not be acceptable for EMA, and vice versa. It's a right royal pain in the arse when preparing submissions .
Thanks for explaining it.
I wondered, with it being a Swiss company, if approval was sought in Switzerland first, then all the fanfare saved for FDA because of the size of that market.
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  #1693  
Old 10.10.2017, 15:10
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Re: Ask a Scientist

Why is my coconut bread blue?

ask-scientist-coconut_bread.jpg

on the photo with the recipe it is white

Incredients: Cocnut flour, coconut oil, little salt, little baking soda, lots of eggs.

A chemical reaction?!

If this was my last post .... it was fun
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  #1694  
Old 10.10.2017, 15:12
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Why is my coconut bread blue?

Attachment 129847

on the photo with the recipe it is white

Incredients: Cocnut flour, coconut oil, little salt, little baking soda, lots of eggs.

A chemical reaction?!

If this was my last post .... it was fun
Baking soda or baking powder? Does it have aluminium?
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  #1695  
Old 10.10.2017, 15:24
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Baking soda or baking powder? Does it have aluminium?
Baking soda.
Does what have aluminium? The baking soda? Naaa why would it have?

But you just made me think of something: When I greased the baking pan, I used aluminium foil. What if a tiny peace tore off and stayed in?! (And why would that happen today when it never did before?).
Would that cause this color? Not logic, aluminium foil is heat resistant, people use it in the ofen all the time.

Do I have to throw that bread away?
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  #1696  
Old 10.10.2017, 15:25
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Baking soda.
Does what have aluminium? The baking soda? Naaa why would it have?

But you just made me think of something: When I greased the baking pan, I used aluminium foil. What it I tiny peace tore off and stayed in?! (And why would that happen today when it never did before?).
Would that cause this color? Not logic, aluminium foil is heat resistant, people use it in the ofen all the time.

Do I have to throw that bread away?
Ok, baking powder sometimes contains aluminium, hence asking. Other reason is baking soda reacting with the components and causing this colour. Try making another batch with baking powder.

Don't throw it, it is perfectly fine
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  #1697  
Old 10.10.2017, 15:33
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Ok, baking powder sometimes contains aluminium, hence asking. Other reason is baking soda reacting with the components and causing this colour. Try making another batch with baking powder.

Don't throw it, it is perfectly fine
Need 6 eggs for this .... got only 3 left , so no new batch. I just replace the baking soda with baking powder? The recipe says .....

Wonder what the baking soda could have reacted with to go blue as the ingredients are not very special?

Well, thanks for the reassurance. You know it's all in writing here for ever, if it' turns out poisonous after all
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  #1698  
Old 10.10.2017, 15:37
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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Need 6 eggs for this .... got only 3 left , so no new batch. I just replace the baking soda with baking powder? The recipe says .....

Wonder what the baking soda could have reacted with to go blue as the ingredients are not very special?

Well, thanks for the reassurance. You know it's all in writing here for ever, if it' turns out poisonous after all
The one time I have encountered this is with sunflower seeds/butter as they contain chlorogenic acid. Maybe something in the coconut oil? If you used the same ingredients as before and it changed colour only this time, no idea what happened
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  #1699  
Old 13.10.2017, 11:09
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Re: Ask a Scientist

With Trump banging on about 'clean coal', could a scientist please explain the technology, pros and cons to me?
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  #1700  
Old 13.10.2017, 11:17
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Re: Ask a Scientist

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With Trump banging on about 'clean coal', could a scientist please explain the technology, pros and cons to me?
Until someone more expert at this weighs in, this might help a bit - https://www.engadget.com/2017/03/30/...ure-energy-no/
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