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Health insurance can also be provided via the employer under a group plan. If you elect to take coverage under the employer, the employer will provide FORM 1095-C which provides proof of coverage when filing taxes.
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Oh duh! I totally forgot that bit, and it's a large part of insurance in the U.S.!
In fact it's quite common for the employer to provide health insurance, due to federal law requiring employers with more than 50 full-time-equivalent employees to offer an insurance plan or face a tax penalty.
Usually the employee and employer each pay a portion of the premium cost. The employee's portion is often deducted with the bi-weekly or monthly payroll, pre-tax. This lowers the employee's taxable income a little bit.
The employee may have an annual deductible (similar to the franchise in Switzerland) and/or copays for each doctor visit or procedure.
Some employers also offer health savings accounts, or HSAs. These allow employees to set aside money pre-tax to put toward medical expenses. The upside is that if used properly they reduce taxable income and provide a cushion to cover expenses as they arise. Some even will reimburse over-the-counter medicines like ibuprofen, and some allow you to use the funds to offset gym membership costs. My friends have used HSAs as a way to save and pay for big expenses such as braces for the children.
The downside is that most HSAs are "use it or lose it" - if the actual medical expenses are less than the amount that has been withheld in anticipation, the money is not returned to the employee. Calculate carefully!
Thanks VFR for jogging my memory!