Go Back   English Forum Switzerland > Off-Topic > Off-Topic > International affairs/politics
Reply
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
  #1241  
Old 02.07.2013, 09:03
Wollishofener's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: Glattbrugg
Posts: 19,023
Groaned at 333 Times in 258 Posts
Thanked 11,716 Times in 6,858 Posts
Wollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
disappointing mess;
"egypt's army has cautioned that it will intervene next weekend if mass rallies against the president descend into violence, in one of its strongest warnings since it handed over to civilian government a year ago. Abdel fattah al-sisi, the defence minister, said he would not allow "attack on the will of the people"
"more than 15 million egyptians have signed a petition calling for the president's downfall, furious at morsi's unilateralism and impatient at plummeting living standards."

one bright point;
"adel al-khayat, who was a member of gamaa islamiya, a group whose associates murdered at least 58 tourists in 1997 at a pharaonic temple in luxor, resigned from the job just days after he was installed."

but it does make morsi look stupid?
yes
Reply With Quote
  #1242  
Old 02.07.2013, 10:42
Mowvich's Avatar
Forum Veteran
 
Join Date: Apr 2007
Location: Genève
Posts: 1,428
Groaned at 28 Times in 20 Posts
Thanked 1,308 Times in 607 Posts
Blog Entries: 1
Mowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
Getting Hotter!
From the Guardian;
"Egypt was thrown into fresh turmoil on Monday when President Mohamed Morsi's aides indicated he would not give in to the threat of a military coup just hours after the army gave him two days to placate the millions who have taken to the streets calling for his departure.
The head of Egypt's armed forces, General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, threatened direct military involvement in the political process "if the demands of the people are not met", in a statement implying that Morsi should either step down or at least call early elections.
in Egypt, events suggested the tide had already turned, with 10 cabinet ministers resigning and the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood, the group from which Morsi hails, burnt and ransacked in an all-night siege."

I am not sure who the 10 resigning cabinet ministers are; all the other papers mention 4
Now 11 Ministers incl. Minister of foreign affairs who resigned late night + 7 governers + TV said to be under the control of the army the the presidential statement only appeared o facebook not national tv.

Morsi & MB are on their own, even Salafi's Nour party his biggest ally is against him....it's a matter of hours now
Reply With Quote
This user would like to thank Mowvich for this useful post:
  #1243  
Old 02.07.2013, 20:21
Pashosh's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2006
Location: Baden
Posts: 420
Groaned at 169 Times in 124 Posts
Thanked 1,538 Times in 832 Posts
Pashosh has an excellent reputationPashosh has an excellent reputationPashosh has an excellent reputationPashosh has an excellent reputation
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

And then what? it's not as if Egyptians have a good leader on stand by. Even a mere competent one is hard to come by.
As I said before, Mubarak is already missed by many Egyptians.
Reply With Quote
  #1244  
Old 02.07.2013, 20:34
Phos's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Aug 2006
Location: ZRH
Posts: 7,398
Groaned at 544 Times in 418 Posts
Thanked 10,130 Times in 5,411 Posts
Phos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

That is the problem when change occurs through revolution instead of due process. There is often a couple of revolutions and counter-revolutions that follow before things settles down. What they need is a valid constitution that prescribes how to affect a change democratically through due process. It was a mistake to stuff Morsi's constitution down people's throats.
Reply With Quote
This user would like to thank Phos for this useful post:
  #1245  
Old 02.07.2013, 22:54
marton's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: May 2008
Location: Kt. Zürich
Posts: 8,580
Groaned at 249 Times in 215 Posts
Thanked 11,601 Times in 6,335 Posts
marton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
That is the problem when change occurs through revolution instead of due process. There is often a couple of revolutions and counter-revolutions that follow before things settles down. What they need is a valid constitution that prescribes how to affect a change democratically through due process. It was a mistake to stuff Morsi's constitution down people's throats.
Well a large group of secular people are revolting because they say Morsi is forcing Islam on them & another large group of people are revolting because they say Morsi is not forcing enough Islam on them.

I think it will take much more than a new constitution to find a way out of this mess.

Probably the pro-pro-Islam group are more militant which adds to the difficulty of finding a compromise.
Reply With Quote
  #1246  
Old 03.07.2013, 00:04
Wollishofener's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: Glattbrugg
Posts: 19,023
Groaned at 333 Times in 258 Posts
Thanked 11,716 Times in 6,858 Posts
Wollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
And then what? it's not as if Egyptians have a good leader on stand by. Even a mere competent one is hard to come by.
As I said before, Mubarak is already missed by many Egyptians.
Absolutely. Mubarak was one of the best Egyptian leaders in the long history of that country. He however stayed for too long instead of resigning with dignity.

A new presidential election may give the Egyptians the possibility to vote for a president they really like and not just either a protest-vote-chap or a military ruler in civilian disguise. When re-electing the parliament they may vote in accordance with political positions and not just in favour of protest. My guess however rather is a military junta, out of which the new national leader may emerge

Mr Mursi simply rejects to compromise or to step down. He sees things in typical Third World politics way elected once, elected for life . To step down outside the official term in the way of CDG in 1968 is not on the agenda.

Last edited by Wollishofener; 03.07.2013 at 08:31.
Reply With Quote
  #1247  
Old 03.07.2013, 21:59
Wollishofener's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: Glattbrugg
Posts: 19,023
Groaned at 333 Times in 258 Posts
Thanked 11,716 Times in 6,858 Posts
Wollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Latest news are that the army takes positions all over Cairo and that there shortly will be a joint announcement by the armed forces and the opposition. The tanks of the army are apparently greeted by the people quite positively

The former president Mursi was ousted just this evening and replaced in his functions by the president of the Supreme Court

http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/03/wo...html?hpt=hp_t1

Last edited by Wollishofener; 03.07.2013 at 22:20.
Reply With Quote
This user would like to thank Wollishofener for this useful post:
  #1248  
Old 03.07.2013, 22:35
marton's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: May 2008
Location: Kt. Zürich
Posts: 8,580
Groaned at 249 Times in 215 Posts
Thanked 11,601 Times in 6,335 Posts
marton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond reputemarton has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
Latest news are that the army takes positions all over Cairo and that there shortly will be a joint announcement by the armed forces and the opposition. The tanks of the army are apparently greeted by the people quite positively

The former president Mursi was ousted just this evening and replaced in his functions by the president of the Supreme Court

http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/03/wo...html?hpt=hp_t1
Mursi just neuteralised - no blood.
Reply With Quote
  #1249  
Old 03.07.2013, 22:55
Phos's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Aug 2006
Location: ZRH
Posts: 7,398
Groaned at 544 Times in 418 Posts
Thanked 10,130 Times in 5,411 Posts
Phos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond reputePhos has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

The trouble with revolutions and coup d'etats is that it breaks the rules, leaving no rule at all. What Egypt really needs is a valid set of rules that everyone can respect and abide by - a valid constitution. Then it might have stability, and I might consider vacationing there. That stability is key to rebuilding the country and improving people's lives.

Mursi really should have simply called for an election and a democratic process forward. Getting elected once under national duress does not mean the country elected him to be dictator. I can't believe he called for death and blood to defend his hold on power. Not a very responsible position for such a leader. He deserves this deposition.
Reply With Quote
This user would like to thank Phos for this useful post:
  #1250  
Old 03.07.2013, 23:04
Wollishofener's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: Glattbrugg
Posts: 19,023
Groaned at 333 Times in 258 Posts
Thanked 11,716 Times in 6,858 Posts
Wollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
The trouble with revolutions and coup d'etats is that it breaks the rules, leaving no rule at all. What Egypt really needs is a valid set of rules that everyone can respect and abide by - a valid constitution. Then it might have stability, and I might consider vacationing there. That stability is key to rebuilding the country and improving people's lives.

Mursi really should have simply called for an election and a democratic process forward. Getting elected once under national duress does not mean the country elected him to be dictator. I can't believe he called for death and blood to defend his hold on power. Not a very responsible position for such a leader. He deserves this deposition.

Mursi knew very well that he would have lost any RE-relection
Reply With Quote
  #1251  
Old 04.07.2013, 01:29
Castro's Avatar
à la mod
 
Join Date: Nov 2007
Location: Basel-Land of Smiles
Posts: 5,108
Groaned at 104 Times in 84 Posts
Thanked 14,646 Times in 4,717 Posts
Castro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

I regard this as a national tragedy

Quote:
2316:
Al Jazeera's Egyptian channel was reportedly raided by security forces on Wednesday. Karim el-Assuiti from the Mubashr Misr station said the journalists were prevented from broadcasting a pro-Morsi rally and five staff were detained BBC
Quote:
At least 16 people were killed in Cairo when a rally of Morsi supporters came under attack by unidentified gunmen on Tuesday night
BBC
And across Egypt further pro Morsi protesters have been surrounded by the military, beaten, abused and killed. And half a dozen TV stations sympathetic to the President have been hauled off the air.

Clearly the military want to pass off this coup d'état as something the people want, but how will we ever know when they have usurped power from the only democratically elected leader modern day Egypt has ever had?
Reply With Quote
This user would like to thank Castro for this useful post:
  #1252  
Old 04.07.2013, 01:40
Castro's Avatar
à la mod
 
Join Date: Nov 2007
Location: Basel-Land of Smiles
Posts: 5,108
Groaned at 104 Times in 84 Posts
Thanked 14,646 Times in 4,717 Posts
Castro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

It seems like William Hague also recognises the calamity that has befallen Egypt

Quote:
  • 2328:
    The UK has advised its citizens to avoid all non-essential travel to Egypt "apart from the Red Sea resorts". British Foreign Minister William Hague also said that "the United Kingdom does not support military intervention as a way to resolve disputes in a democratic system".
Reply With Quote
  #1253  
Old 04.07.2013, 02:07
Mowvich's Avatar
Forum Veteran
 
Join Date: Apr 2007
Location: Genève
Posts: 1,428
Groaned at 28 Times in 20 Posts
Thanked 1,308 Times in 607 Posts
Blog Entries: 1
Mowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
I regard this as a national tragedy

And across Egypt further pro Morsi protesters have been surrounded by the military, beaten, abused and killed. And half a dozen TV stations sympathetic to the President have been hauled off the air.

Clearly the military want to pass off this coup d'état as something the people want, but how will we ever know when they have usurped power from the only democratically elected leader modern day Egypt has ever had?
Sorry but you're totally wrong......reasons:

-first it's not a coup, people demanded this and the president failed to address the problem and only spoke to his Muslim brotherhood, threatened the people and incited violence, the western media is declaring it a coup cause this is all against the US interestes of having a US base in Egypt and General Sissi allying with Russia in the last minute.
-second, military didn't beat the Islamists in their gathering, he just surrounded them and neutralized them of their weapons
-third, we had a war zone in alexandria for nearly 2 hours cause MBs started shooting at people & buildings....i myself got shot and it took the military 2 hours to arrive...not because they can't do it earlier but because they didn't want to be accused of attacking islamists as the western media is selling it

End of, those fascists are terrorists, we overthrew them and we're taking care of them, if they want to integrate in the society without their violent fascist idea, they're welcome, if not....then security is fully authorized to take care of them
__________________
Silence is an argument carried out by other means.
Reply With Quote
  #1254  
Old 04.07.2013, 02:23
Castro's Avatar
à la mod
 
Join Date: Nov 2007
Location: Basel-Land of Smiles
Posts: 5,108
Groaned at 104 Times in 84 Posts
Thanked 14,646 Times in 4,717 Posts
Castro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
-first it's not a coup, people demanded this and the president failed to address the problem
Again, how do we know what the people want when you haven't polled them in a transparent democratic process. Egypt is a country of 82 million, and clearly there weren't more than a few million out in Tahrir Sq and other rally points. I'm sorry, but these are the actions of an immature democracy. And who is to say that the military won't pull a similar stunt when Al Baradei or whoever decides to cut their pensions and other gold plated benefits?
Reply With Quote
  #1255  
Old 04.07.2013, 02:33
Mowvich's Avatar
Forum Veteran
 
Join Date: Apr 2007
Location: Genève
Posts: 1,428
Groaned at 28 Times in 20 Posts
Thanked 1,308 Times in 607 Posts
Blog Entries: 1
Mowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
Again, how do we know what the people want when you haven't polled them in a transparent democratic process. Egypt is a country of 82 million, and clearly there weren't more than a few million out in Tahrir Sq and other rally points. I'm sorry, but these are the actions of an immature democracy. And who is to say that the military won't pull a similar stunt when Al Baradei or whoever decides to cut their pensions and other gold plated benefits?
I can tell you from Egypt and after over 3 months working on the ground.....90% of Egyptians are against MB ruling not only because they failed but because they have betrayed us & the country....they even accused anyone but them as being infidels.

On another note, revolutions are an extra ordinary incident so extra ordinary measures should be taken.....there's no laws for revolutions and democracy isn't a copy paste process....we want our own political framework that is customized to our own needs.

Finally, we did a mistake electing them in the first place and we promised to overthrow them if they start playing their dirty games....we did what we promised and we're starting again but in the right way
__________________
Silence is an argument carried out by other means.
Reply With Quote
  #1256  
Old 04.07.2013, 02:47
Castro's Avatar
à la mod
 
Join Date: Nov 2007
Location: Basel-Land of Smiles
Posts: 5,108
Groaned at 104 Times in 84 Posts
Thanked 14,646 Times in 4,717 Posts
Castro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond reputeCastro has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Ok Mowvich, you clearly have more faith in al-geysh than I have.
I will leave it with the ancient Chinese proverb... Be careful of what you wish for
Reply With Quote
This user would like to thank Castro for this useful post:
  #1257  
Old 04.07.2013, 04:00
Mowvich's Avatar
Forum Veteran
 
Join Date: Apr 2007
Location: Genève
Posts: 1,428
Groaned at 28 Times in 20 Posts
Thanked 1,308 Times in 607 Posts
Blog Entries: 1
Mowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond reputeMowvich has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
Ok Mowvich, you clearly have more faith in al-geysh than I have.
I will leave it with the ancient Chinese proverb... Be careful of what you wish for
I have faith in the people...what people want is what's gonna happen
Reply With Quote
  #1258  
Old 04.07.2013, 04:56
Sbrinz's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Oct 2011
Location: Murten - Morat
Posts: 11,918
Groaned at 590 Times in 377 Posts
Thanked 11,539 Times in 5,936 Posts
Sbrinz has a reputation beyond reputeSbrinz has a reputation beyond reputeSbrinz has a reputation beyond reputeSbrinz has a reputation beyond reputeSbrinz has a reputation beyond reputeSbrinz has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
I have faith in the people...what people want is what's gonna happen
Are the normal workers better off now after the Arab Spring in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen? I suspect there is higher unemployment and a whole new situation with new problems for the normal citizen.

I suspect some of the old businesses have folded, and nothing has yet taken up the slack. The new people are probably just as corrupt, but have not yet been caught with their hands in the honey pot?

Maybe I am cynical, but we haven't heard much good or bad news from those countries, except of course from Egypt.

When I look at the total number of deaths in the Arab disputes, at least 122,500, I have to wonder if it has been worth it? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

.

Last edited by Sbrinz; 04.07.2013 at 05:09.
Reply With Quote
  #1259  
Old 04.07.2013, 06:04
Wollishofener's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: Glattbrugg
Posts: 19,023
Groaned at 333 Times in 258 Posts
Thanked 11,716 Times in 6,858 Posts
Wollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond reputeWollishofener has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
Are the normal workers better off now after the Arab Spring in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen? I suspect there is higher unemployment and a whole new situation with new problems for the normal citizen.

I suspect some of the old businesses have folded, and nothing has yet taken up the slack. The new people are probably just as corrupt, but have not yet been caught with their hands in the honey pot?

Maybe I am cynical, but we haven't heard much good or bad news from those countries, except of course from Egypt.

When I look at the total number of deaths in the Arab disputes, at least 122,500, I have to wonder if it has been worth it? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

.

Most of the deads were in Syria which has tumbled into a full civil war, in Libya which had a civil war and in Yemen, where most of the deads were due to military conflicts with elQaeda etc.

In case of Libya, it has been worth it, to end the harsh dictatorship of Khaddafi. In Tunisia and Egypt, things cannot yet be judged as the changes are still goeing on. In case of Egypt you of course can argue that this country right at present has moved back to military rule. In case of BOTH Tunisia and Egypt you have to see that two authoritarian but economically successful rulers have been toppled.
Reply With Quote
  #1260  
Old 04.07.2013, 09:24
Medea Fleecestealer's Avatar
Forum Legend
 
Join Date: Jul 2011
Location: Misery-Courtion
Posts: 17,873
Groaned at 301 Times in 233 Posts
Thanked 13,144 Times in 7,533 Posts
Medea Fleecestealer has a reputation beyond reputeMedea Fleecestealer has a reputation beyond reputeMedea Fleecestealer has a reputation beyond reputeMedea Fleecestealer has a reputation beyond reputeMedea Fleecestealer has a reputation beyond reputeMedea Fleecestealer has a reputation beyond repute
Re: Egypt "Jan 25 - Day of revolution" [Update: Mubarak resigns]

Quote:
View Post
That is the problem when change occurs through revolution instead of due process. There is often a couple of revolutions and counter-revolutions that follow before things settles down. What they need is a valid constitution that prescribes how to affect a change democratically through due process. It was a mistake to stuff Morsi's constitution down people's throats.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-23173794

Phos, change rarely occurs without revolution of some sort. Be it large or small, revolutions, civil wars, etc, are the real imputus of change, not due process. Due process only comes after. Often there is no due process in place such as in Egypt during Mubarak's time which would generate change. America, the bastion of democratic process, had their own revolution before they could start down the democratic road.
Reply With Quote
Reply

Tags
egypt, marches




Currently Active Users Viewing This Thread: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
 
Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are Off
Pingbacks are Off
Refbacks are Off


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Is Hosni Mubarak your "friend" on Facebook? Dougal's Breakfast International affairs/politics 3 06.02.2011 18:00
Merz resigns from Federal Government MrVertigo Swiss politics/news 7 06.08.2010 23:40
Day skiing on 30/31 Jan near Zurich ? Gntforever Social events 3 26.01.2010 15:32
Fidel Castro resigns as Cuban President Natasha International affairs/politics 35 30.06.2009 14:44
Jan 21 the saddest day of the year? Nev General off-topic 19 21.01.2008 23:25


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 21:59.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
LinkBacks Enabled by vBSEO 3.1.0